Argan oil is a plant oil produced from the kernels of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.), endemic to Morocco, that is valued for its nutritive, cosmetic and numerous medicinal properties.

Argan tree
The tree is extremely well adapted to drought and other environmentally harsh conditions of southwestern Morocco. The genus Argania once covered North Africa and is now endangered and under protection of UNESCO.

The argan tree grows wild in semi-arid soil, its deep root system helping to protect against soil erosion and the northern advance of the Sahara. This biosphere reserve, the Arganeraie Biosphere Reserve, covers a vast intramontane plain of more than 2,560,000 hectares, bordered by the High Atlas and Little Atlas Mountains and the Atlantic in the west. Argan oil remains one of the rarest oils in the world due to the small and very specific growing areas.

Composition of Argan Oil:
Argan Oil contains fatty acids up to four fifths. It contains Vitamin E, lipid compounds derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, polyphenoles, acids and antioxidants. All these compounds have different characteristics and are useful individually in a unique way. They are useful in many ways from the reparation of DNA to protection from Ultra Violet radiation, and reducing stretch marks and wrinkles.
Argan Oil Composition and Function:
Argan Oil contains a high level of essential fatty acids, including linoleic acid. Fatty acids are beneficial for nourishment and protection of the skin and hair. They protect and repair the skin and hair. Argan is also very high in Vitamin E, one of the most powerful biological anti-oxidants in neutralizing free radical production. The anti-oxidants in Argan Oil is 80 times higher than the one olive oil. Vitamin E is also very potent at stabilizing the cell membranes from a process called lipid peroxidation. Therefore, it is excellent at slowing the aging process of the skin.  

Properties and uses
Fatty acid     Percentage
Oleic     42.8%
Linoleic     36.8%
Palmitic     12.0%
Stearic     6.0%
Linolenic     <0.5%

Argan oil has a relative density at 20°C ranging from 0.906 to 0.919.

Argan oil contains tocopherols (vitamin E), phenols, carotenes, squalene, and fatty acids, (80% unsaturated fatty acids)[citation needed] The main natural phenols in argan oil are caffeic acid, oleuropein, vanillic acid, tyrosol, catechol, resorcinol, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin.

Depending on the extraction method, argan oil may be more resistant to oxidation than olive oil.

Commonly known as the “miracle oil” operated in the argan tree from Morocco (Country in the north west corner of Africa), this oil is in competition with all other natural oils as a treatment of excellent hair which feeds as well as regenerates dry hair or brittle all deteriorating security and recovery, and the same for the skin and all the body. As one of its benefits applied, oil is perfect in the improvement of a hair colour treated. Smooth oil fatty acids and special coverage of the follicle of tree and maintain the quality of the color treated hair.

(Source: wikipedia and all.)